Eastern White Pine

Pinus strobus

Kenneth Sytsma, Wisconsin State Herbarium

Eastern White Pine is the largest pine tree in Virginia. It grows over 100 feet and has a straight trunk up to four feet wide.

Like all pine trees, this tree is evergreen, so it keeps its leaves (needles) year-round. Pine needles are in small clumps of five, and each one grows up to five inches long.

Eastern White Pine has small yellow cones as flowers. The fruits of this tree are large brown pine cones, four to eight inches long. Each cone has two small seeds in it.


The bark of Eastern White Pine is gray and smooth when the tree is young, and becomes rougher and furrowed (deep wrinkles) as it gets older.

Eastern White Pine grows alongside of oaks, hickories, Virginia Pine, Loblolly Pine, American Elm, American Beech, maples, Yellow Poplar, Flowering Dogwood, and Black Cherry, among other trees.

Some other plants which commonly grown beneath Eastern White Pine include: Highbush Blueberry, Sweetfern, Bracken Fern, clubmosses, Broom Sedge, Partridgeberry, Jack-in-the-Pulpit, and Wild Sarsparilla.

Eastern White Pine often grows in fierce competition with Red Maple, American Beech and Southern Red Oak.

Many fungi are parasites of this tree, including Honey Mushroom, Golden Spreading Polypore, Bleeding Conifer Parchment, and Dye Polypore.

Young Eastern White Pine are eaten by White-tailed Deer and Eastern Cottontails.

Eastern Cottontails also eat the bark from larger trees, as do Beaver.

Squirrels, Eastern Chipmunks, voles, and mice eat pine needles, as well as seeds.

Many birds eat Eastern White Pine seeds, including Black-capped Chickadee, Pine Warbler, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, and White-breasted Nuthatch.

Many species of birds also nest in Eastern White Pine. They are a favorite nest site of American Bald Eagles.

Cavity dwellers, such as woodpeckers, squirrels, and Black-capped Chickadees live in holes of Eastern White Pine.

This tree can live over 400 years.

Relationships in Nature:

Animals Using as Food Source

Animals Using as Shelter

Associations With Other Plants


Meadow Vole

Bald Eagle

Red Maple

Red Maple EC

White-footed Mouse

Pileated Woodpecker

Black Oak

American Beech EC

Eastern Gray Squirrel

Carolina Chickadee

Mockernut Hickory

Southern Red Oak EC

White-tailed Deer

Black Rat Snake

American Elm

Honey Mushroom Pa

Eastern Chipmunk


Indian Pipe

Turkey Tail Pa


Big Brown Bat

Yellow Poplar

White-breasted Nuthatch D

Eastern Cottontail

Wood Duck

American Beech

Mourning Dove D

Carolina Chickadee

Common Grackle

Black Cherry

Death Cap My

White-breasted Nuthatch

Wild Turkey

Flowering Dogwood

Japanese Honeysuckle Pa

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker

Mourning Dove

Highbush Blueberry

Oyster Mushroom Pa

Wild Turkey

American Robin

Bracken Fern

Emetic Russula My

Mourning Dove

Blue Jay

White Cushion Moss

Bigtooth Aspen EC

Northern Bobwhite

Virginia Opossum

Pink Lady's Slipper

Indian Pipe Pa

American Goldfinch

White-breasted Nuthatch

Eastern Redcedar

Dark-eyed Junco

Ruby-throated Hummingbird


Green Stinkbug

Dogday Harvestfly

Witch Hazel

Tufted Titmouse

Great Crested Flycatcher

American Holly

Dogday Harvestfly

American Goldfinch

Smooth Sumac

European Gypsy Moth

European Gypsy Moth


Sharp-shinned Hawk

Black Locust

Relationship to Humans:

Eastern White Pine is used as lumber for construction, pulp (paper), cabinets, furniture, door frames, boats, coffins, matches, paneling, boxes, and crates. It is also used for ships' masts, because they have a large, straight trunk. Eastern White Pines are also used as Christmas trees.



Pinus strobus


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